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The function of material of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain and application

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Normal > summary: It is good that material of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain has as tall hardness, tall wearability, small as metallic affinity, chemical stability wait for a characteristic, and in domestic tegument wide application quenchs at cutting treatment the high temperature of cast-iron, nickel radical of all sorts of steel, alloy steel, difficult cutting closes wait for material. Its cutting efficiency is the 3 times above of hard alloy. Particularly a few righter difficult cutting material, have admirable cutting characteristic. Normal > keyword: Function of material of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain applies Normal Align=center> one, exordial Normal > 1938 year the production on the world gives alumina (material of cutting tool of Al2O3) pottery and porcelain; Development went pottery and porcelain of alumina ― carbide 1958; 1968 ― developed alumina of small granule of favorable balance of trade again 1970 (Al2O3) pottery and porcelain and alumina + carbonization titanium + pottery and porcelain of nickel hot pressing; Development went nitrogen to change silicon 1981 (Si3N4) pottery and porcelain. In this short 50 old in, as a result of the effort of domestic and international Scientists and Technologists, make the bending strength of material of this one cutting tool raises 130kgf/mm2) of ― of 900 ― 1300MPa(90 by 450MPa. Current, dosage of cutting tool of domestic and international pottery and porcelain and photograph of hard alloy cutting tool are more very few than returning, but be in Japan, euramerican wait for a developed country to use a case, already achieved the 11 % above of hard alloy, the cutting tool with cutting the most hopeful efficiency rises after thinking cutting tool of pottery and porcelain will be become generally 90 years. Normal Align=center>normal > occupies concerned data statistic: Japan produces per year razor blade of pottery and porcelain 3.5 million, occupy but the 9 % of razor blade of dislocation cutting tool, the country that European industry developeds, the output of razor blade of pottery and porcelain with annual the rate of 20 % rises, the proportion that uses in automobile manufacturing industry especially is the largest, be like plant of car of Ford of grand of confederative Germany division, in 270 thousand razor blade razor blade of pottery and porcelain is 90 thousand multichip, occupy 34 % . Use in the cutting tool of numerical control machine tool, razor blade of pottery and porcelain occupies 40 % left and right sides. Cutting tool of pottery and porcelain of American Ford Motor Corporation makes dosage occupies 40 % ; Russia produces per year razor blade of pottery and porcelain to amount to 50 ― 600 thousand; Our country begins development and cutting tool of use pottery and porcelain from 1953, the unit such as university of institute of silicate of university of industry of institute of works of Nanjing report porcelain and institute of pottery and porcelain of metallurgy of Chinese Academy of Sciences, tool of one machine ministry, Shandong, Shanghai, Tsinghua, develop an alumina pottery and porcelain early or late, pottery and porcelain of alumina + carbide and nitrogen change silicon radical pottery and porcelain, make the function of razor blade of pottery and porcelain and quality all rise greatly. If wear-resisting of treatment of factory of Shijiazhuang water pump is cast-iron,mix hard nickel is cast-iron, working procedure is machined in the car 60 % are cutting tool of pottery and porcelain, year wastage 10 thousand above; Factory of Chengdu measure cutting tool adds the circle outside semifinished product of 1 million broach every year with cutting tool of pottery and porcelain. According to statistic, the whole nation produces razor blade of pottery and porcelain every year hundred thousands of above. Current, alumina base cutting tool card has 20 already many, nitrogen changes silicon radical to already had 10 many brands. Normal > pottery and porcelain has very tall hardness, wearability, have good high temperature capability, as small as metallic affinity, not with metallic felt, chemical stability is good. Accordingly, it is OK the workpiece stuff with the expensive hardness that cutting machines common cutting tool hard. The optimal cutting speed of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain can compare hard alloy cutting tool tall 2 ― 10 times, and cutting tool durability is tall, can improve manufacturing efficiency greatly. The main raw material of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain, origin is rich. In recent years, research develops an unit, research developed raw material purity tall, grain size is small, add all sorts of carbide, nitride, boride and oxide and brilliant are needed, use a variety of measure to increase tenacity, make the bending strength of material of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain is mixed rupture tenacity rises substantially, and relatively wide application. Can use at high speed cutting, do cutting and hard cutting. Normal > 2, the phyletic Normal > 1 alumina base pottery and porcelain: Normal > (1) pure alumina: It is purity in 99.

The Al2O3 of 9 % above is added 0.

1 ― 0.

The vitreous oxide of 15 % (MgO NiO TiO2 CrO3) , use cold press or heat up suppress to become. Be like brand P1(AM) , hardness HRN96.

5, bending strength 500 ― 550MPa, its high temperature capability is lower. Normal > (2) alumina ― fastens pottery and porcelain: It is the metal under 10 % is added in Al2O3 (Cr Co Mo W Ti) forms cermet. Because its creep intensity is low, fight oxidation function to differ, use rarely. Normal > (3) alumina ― fastens pottery and porcelain: This is a kind of development fast, the stuff of cutting tool of a kind of pottery and porcelain with good performance characteristics. It is add in Al2O3 hundred to the carbide of hundred (hot pressing of TiC WC Mo C NbC Cr2O3) (1800 ℃ of 1500 ―, 1500 ― 3000MPa) agglomeration and into. Hardness HRA94.

5 ― 95.

3, bending strength M16(T8) of brand of 800 ― 1180MPa, AT6, SG3, SG4. Normal > (4) alumina ― fastens pottery and porcelain: It is the metal is added in pottery and porcelain of alumina ― carbide (Ni Mo W Co) in order to increase the join strength between alumina and carbide, and raise its performance characteristics. What can be used at interrupted cutting and use cutting fluid is integrated. Hardness HRA93.

5 ― 94.

8, bending strength 800 ― 1200MPa. Brand M4, M5(T1) , M6, LT35, LT55. Normal > still has pottery and porcelain of SiC of ― of TiB2 of ― of Al2O3 ― ZrO2, Al2O3, Al2O3 in addition. Normal >2 nitrogen changes silicon radical pottery and porcelain: Normal > it is it is raw material with the Si3N4 of tall purity, add MgO Al2O3 Y2O3 to wait to aid agglomeration agent, become through agglomeration of hot pressing figuration. It is the cutting tool material that 80 time development rises. Its function exceeded alumina in a lot of respects base pottery and porcelain, hardness HRA93 ― 94, bending strength 700 ― 1100MPa, the brand has SM, HS73, HS80, F85, ST4, SC3 to wait. Normal Align=center> 3, alumina base the function Normal > 1, have very tall wearability: The hardness of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain, HRA 91.

5 ― 95, exceed hard alloy. When cutting casting pig and alloy steel, metallic excision rate is coating hard alloy respectively 23 times and 6 times with 20 times what be blame coating hard alloy when cutting steel. For example: Wear extent of face of the knife after cutting tool (VB) falls in same situation, cutting tool of pottery and porcelain of Al2O3 ~ TiC and the cutting time that hard alloy cutting tool compares are 20 times higher. Normal > 2, have very high high temperature capability: Cutting tool of pottery and porcelain falls in the high temperature of 1200 ℃ above still can normal cutting, at this moment, its hardness and hard alloy in 200 ― the hardness when 600 ℃ comparatives. But what bending strength reduces however is very few, its compressive strength comparatives in 1100 ℃ and room temperature. Just produce plasticity to be out of shape in 1350 ℃ , undertake cutting because of its have this kind of high temperature capability and allowing to be below taller cutting speed condition. Its cutting rate is higher than hard alloy 2 ― 5 times. If be mixed in alloy of cutting high temperature when nickel radical alloy, its cutting speed can compare hard alloy tall 3 ― 5 times. Speed of the cutting when 45 steel can amount to cutting 300 ― 1500m/min, and hard alloy has 100 ― only 300m/min. Normal > 3, good land fights stick receive performance: The affinity of Al2O3 and metal is very small, it and the metallic compound such as a lot of carbide, oxide, boride react each other capacity is very small, produce felt not easily with the metal, so it has good land to fight felt ability, can reduce cutting tool to wear away in the felt in cutting process. (The produces felt temperature of Al2O3 and steel is 1538 ℃ ) . Normal > 4, chemical stability is good: The TiC of chemical and inert excel of Al2O3 pottery and porcelain, WC and Si3N4. Although it is in when fused temperature, also do not have chemistry with steel. Deliquescent in iron rate is lower than WC 4 ― 5 times, consequently when cutting of Al2O3 cutting tool, its diffuse wear away little. Again criterion, material of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain fights oxidation temperature is 1750 ℃ , material of cutting tool of its excel other (high-speed steel and hard alloy are 800 ℃ ) , can comfortable undertake cutting at be below higher cutting temperature. Normal > 5, have inferior friction coefficient: The friction as a result of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain coefficient is small, reason cutting is out of shape, cutting force all compares hard alloy small, 45 steel after quenching with LT55 and treatment of cutting tool of SG4 pottery and porcelain for example (when HRC50 ― 55) , compare with YTO5: Fc drops 17.

6 % , fp drops 14 % , ff drops 28 % . The friction of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain when cutting coefficient is low, cut bits to be stuck not easily on cutting tool, not easy generation accumulates bits tumour, the surface roughness that reason already machined the surface is low, the Ra when general cutting steel can amount to Ra0.

8 ― 0.

4 μ M; Cut cast-iron when can amount to Ra1.

6 ― 0.

8 μ M. Normal Align=center>normal > 4, the function Normal > nitrogen changes silicon radical pottery and porcelain is material of a kind of when 70 time development goes new cutting tool, it has very tall hardness, be next to diamond, cubic nitrogen changes boron and carbonization boron to belong to the 4th. Have good wearability, hear resistance, chemical stability and heat-resisting concussion sex, it is a kind of cutting tool stuff that has development outlook very much. Normal > 1, have higher intensity and tenacity: Si3N4 base the bending strength of pottery and porcelain already was amounted to commonly 900, 1000MPa, some already achieved 1500MPa. Y2O3 or MgO can be added in Si3N4, will increase its strength. Its compressive strength after adding can be amounted to 3000, 4000MPa. Its develop a value to be able to be amounted to 0.

12kgf.

M/cm2, and Al2O3, TiC is 0.

09kgf.

M/cm2; Its rupture tenacity compares alumina, TiC is tall. When cutting treatment is cast-iron, its sex that fight collapse is more not bad than YG6. Crackle arises not easily in cutting process. It can use cutting malleable iron, si Taili is special alloy, the oxidation skin cutting of the material such as heat-resisting alloy or interrupted cutting. Normal > 2, taller hear resistance: The hear resistance of Si3N4 pottery and porcelain can be amounted to 1300, 1400 ℃ above, prep above hard alloy reachs other pottery and porcelain, be next to cubic nitrogen to change boron. Can bear consequently higher cutting temperature and corresponding cutting rate, turning nickel base when alloy, cut fast Vc to be able to amount to 300m/min. The normal temperature hardness of Si3N4 pottery and porcelain is mixed under Al2O3 slightly Al2O3-TiC pottery and porcelain, but when 900 ℃ , its hardness is highest, when 1000 ℃ , its hardness drops scarcely. Normal > 3, admirable heat-resisting pounds function: Si3N4 pottery and porcelain has taller coefficient of thermal conductivity (58.

62W/m.

K) is Al2O3(20.

93W/m.

2 of K) radical pottery and porcelain.

5, 3 times, heat-resisting concussion sex is Al2O3 base 2, 3 times. Can undertake with it wet waste treatment. Normal >4, good chemistry stabilizes function: Si3N4 and carbolic element etc are general tantalum chemistry reaction is little, and have fight oxidation function goodly, oxidation increment is not had when 1200 ℃ , than YT kind hard alloy is tall 200 ℃ ; Si3N4, 5MgO pottery and porcelain makes the oxidation skin with a successive can good protection when 1350 ℃ , can maintain hundreds of hours to be not destroyed. Additionally Si3N4 pottery and porcelain is had good self-lubricating function, have inferior friction coefficient and fight felt function goodly, it and body of nonferrous metal melt do not have reaction, cut these metals consequently (copper, aluminous) when, do not arise stick receive and accumulate bits tumour, strong reduce exterior surface roughness. In addition cost of material of Si3N4 cutting tool is low, easily grinding. Can gain sharp point (□ <0.

1 μ M) . Normal Align=center> 5, the applied Normal > pottery and porcelain is comfortable the workpiece data that processes at cutting: Normal > development as a result of science and technology, the function of cutting tool pottery and porcelain rises ceaselessly, its application in cutting treatment is increasingly wide. Applicable main workpiece material has: All sorts of cast-iron (casting pig, nodular cast iron, hard high strenth is cast-iron, cast-iron wait for) . All sorts of rolled steel: Move steel of qualitative steel, alloy steel, artillery piece, high strenth steel. The hard steel of temper by dipping in water of HRC>60, refractory steel and certain heat-resisting alloy; Nonferrous metal; Copper and copper alloy, aluminium and aluminium alloy; Metalloid; Wear-resisting black lead, vulcanite, plastic, special nylon, get together chloric second is rare wait with colophony and clip cloth bakelite. Normal > is additional, cutting tool pottery and porcelain not only comfortable at making lathe tool, boring cutter, milling cutter, planing tool, and also can grind through line cut and blade wait for craft to make the figuration lathe tool, reamer, cutting tool such as hob. At the same time it applies to general accuracy machine tool not only, more apply to numerical control machine tool. It is special also apply to add hot cutting, if use etc leave be cut eagerly at adding difficult when processing data, cutting speed can amount to Vc=70, 100m/min, ap>2.

5mm, f=0.

3, 0.

4mm/r. Normal Align=center> 6, conclusion Normal > 1, pottery and porcelain applies to cutting treatment to quench steel, alloy steel, all sorts of cast-iron, high strenth steel and high temperature alloy. Normal > 2, pottery and porcelain the severalfold above that cutting speed is hard alloy. The efficiency that add land is tall, finished cost is low. Normal >3, labour carbide, nitride, boride and oxide are added in Al2O3 hind, make the bending strength of material of cutting tool of pottery and porcelain is mixed fight rupture tenacity rises greatly, can be in have the cutting below percussive condition. Not only applicable turning, boring, also apply to milling and dig to cut. CNC Milling